MCAS Alternate Assessment

 

 

 

 

Resource Guide to the

Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks

for Students with Disabilities

 

 


SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY/ ENGINEERING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fall 2006

 

 

Science and Technology/Engineering

 

 

STRAND 1:  EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

 

Topics

Grades PreK – 2

Topics

Grades 3 – 5

Topics

Grades 6 – 8

Topics

High School

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

Pages 237 - 239

 

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

Pages 240 - 242

 

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

Page 243

 

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

Pages 244 - 246

 

 

Materials and Energy Resources

 

Pages 237 - 238

 

 

Materials and Energy Resources

 

Pages 240 - 241

 

 

 

--

 

Materials and Energy Resources

 

Pages 244 - 245

 

 

 

--

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

Pages 248 – 249, 251

 

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

Pages 252 - 253

 

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

Pages 254 - 256

 

 

 

--

 

Structure of the Earth

 

Pages 248, 250

 

 

Structure of the Earth

 

Pages 252 -253

 

 

Structure of the Earth

 

Pages 254 - 255

 

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

Page 257

 

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

Page 258

 

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

Pages 259 - 261

 

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

Page 262

 

 

 

--

 

 

--

 

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

 

Pages 259 - 260

 

 

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

 

Page 262

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

PreK–2

 

 

CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Energy in the Earth System

§         Materials and Energy Resources

               

Grade Level:  PreK–2

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

3

 

Describe the weather changes from day to day and over the seasons.

 

¨    Describe weather/seasonal changes

¨    Recognize that the sun supplies heat

 

 

 

4

 

Recognize that the sun supplies heat and light to the earth and is necessary for life.

    and light

 

 

Materials and Energy

 

1

 

Recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earth’s surface.

 

¨    Recognize the following:

·    the earth’s surface is composed of land, water, and living things

·    air (as a gas)

Resources

 

2

 

Understand that air is a mixture of gases that is all around us and that wind is moving air.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded in standards-based activities)

 

  

   Less Complex                                              More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 


ACCESS SKILLS

 

ENTRY POINTS

 

 

 

The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Energy in the Earth System

¨        Maintain eye contact with a weather symbol

¨        Match picture-to-picture weather symbols

¨        Upon request orient body toward a sunny area of the room

¨        Demonstrate an understanding of “inside” and “outside”

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Respond to/initiate contacts with others

¨        Turn attention toward another person

¨        Activate an electronic device to access text, communicate with others, or participate in an instructional activity

¨        Apply rule for appropriate classroom behavior

¨        Initiate or respond to request for joint attention

¨        Recognize that weather is something that happens outside (understand the difference between inside and outside)

¨        Match the weather outside with corresponding pictures/objects

¨        Distinguish between hot/cold and wet/dry

¨        Demonstrate an understanding of “inside” and “outside”

¨        Identify the sun or a sunny location

¨        Observe and record color created by sunlight passing through a prism

¨        Sort familiar objects according to day or night

¨        Identify different weather conditions

¨        List attributes of sunlight (e.g., bright, hot)

¨        Explain the difference between night and day

¨        Compare the sun with other objects in the sky

¨        Identify the four seasons and the typical weather patterns within each (e.g., winter is snowy, summer is hot)

¨        Describe appropriate responses to different weather reports (e.g., it is cold – I need my coat)

¨        Describe changes in weather by day, month, season, and/or year

¨        Conduct simple experiments on the effects of sunlight  (e.g., dry clothes, grow plants)

¨        Make and record observations of the sky during the day and night

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Materials and Energy Resources

¨        Tolerate touching wet and dry

¨        Grasp, manipulate, and release different rocks

¨        Take turns appropriately during classroom discussion

¨        Activate an electronic device to access text, communicate with others, or participate in an instructional activity

¨        Turn attention toward another person

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Initiate or respond to request for joint attention

¨        Identify and differentiate water and land (rocks, soil, sand, etc)

¨        Sort water, rocks, soil into wet and dry

 

 

¨        Sort items as living or non-living

¨        List attributes of air (it is all round us, is something we cannot see, but can feel; e.g., wind)

 

 

¨        Use a map or globe to identify water or land

¨        Conduct simple experiments on air flow

¨        Identify attributes of living and non-living objects

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 4

 

At grades PreK–2, students record the time of day at which the sun shines in different school locations and note the patterns from one day to the next.

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Gerry records data on a daily basis for one month, noting patterns and shifts in the location of the sun’s rays.

 

 

          Data chart showing Gerry’s ability to collect data on the location of the sun’s rays

          Gerry’s data collection sheet and graph charting the location of the rays

          Gerry’s description and interpretation of his graph

          Gerry’s drawing of the site at which he charted the location of the sun’s rays

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at higher levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

As her class records data, Lucy identifies the sun by pointing to it and connects sun/sunlight to time of day. She marks the floor with a chalk line at different times of the day to denote where the sun is shining.

 

 

          Data collected on Lucy’s ability to recognize the sun and associate it with time of day

          Videotape of Lucy identifying the sun and marking the location of the sun’s rays

          Chart of the path of Lucy’s chalk lines across the floor as the sun shifted position

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Tom helps his peers collect data on the sun’s movement throughout the day. He distinguishes sunny from not sunny locations by taking photographs of sunny locations using a camera with an electronic switch.

 

 

          Field data chart showing Tom’s ability to identify “sunny”

          Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart

          Teacher-scribed work sample indicating Tom’s ability to identify sunny locations

 

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Louise maintains contact with the “sunny” symbol picture during the times that she is positioned in a sunny location.

 

          Field data chart of Louise maintaining contact with the symbol

          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart

          Series of photographs of Louise in each of the sunny locations each scribed with the length of time Louise maintained contact with the picture symbol

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

3–5
 


 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Energy in the Earth System

§         Materials and Energy Resources

               

Grade Level: 3–5

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

6

 

Explain how air temperature, moisture, wind speed and direction, and precipitation make up the weather in a particular place and time.

 

¨    Identify and describe the following:

·    factors contributing to weather outcomes

·    types of precipitation

·    global weather patterns and their local effects

·    weather vs. climate

 

 

 

 

7

 

Distinguish among the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time.

 

 

8

 

Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and water currents influence local weather in measurable terms such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation.

 

 

9

 

Differentiate between weather and climate.

 

Materials and Energy

 

1

 

Give a simple explanation of what a mineral is and some examples, e.g., quartz, mica.

 

¨    Explain what a mineral is

¨    Identify and describe the following:

Resources

 

2

 

Identify the physical properties of minerals (hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak) and explain how minerals can be tested for these different physical properties.

·    minerals and their properties

·    types/origins of rocks

¨    Identify and describe the following:

·    properties/formation of soil

 

 

 

5

 

Recognize and discuss the different properties of soil, including color, texture (size of particles), the ability to retain water, and the ability to support the growth of plants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

 

 

    Less Complex                                              More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 


The student will:

 

The student will:

 

The student will:

Energy in the Earth System

¨        Identify hot/cold, wet/dry

¨        Identify and use one weather instrument (e.g., thermometer, rain gauge, wind gauge)

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Describe daily weather (hot/cold, sunny/cloudy, rain/snow/dry)

¨        Conduct simple experiments on air flow

¨        Recognize that weather changes

¨        Identify precipitation in various forms

¨        Relate temperature readings to hot or cold conditions

¨        Identify and use one or more weather instruments (e.g., thermometer, rain gauge, wind gauge)

¨        Use a weather station to make weather observations

¨        Identify/recognize clouds and how they are formed

¨        Identify wind, including direction and velocity

¨        Identify rain and snow as different forms of precipitation

¨        Identify how the weather has changed for a given location over a period of time (compare the weather today with weather yesterday)

¨        Identify how the weather can vary in different parts of the country at the same time (e.g., MA to FL daily weather)

¨        Identify and use weather instruments (e.g., thermometer, rain gauge, wind gauge)

¨        Use a weather station to make weather observations

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

Materials and Energy Resources

¨        Identify soil (apart from rocks, plants)

¨        Sort rocks according to physical characteristics (size, shape, color)

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Make simple observations about different soil samples (moisture, color, rock content)

¨        Conduct simple experiments to demonstrate that soil is made up of different components

¨        Identify and describe similarities and differences among rocks

¨        Describe characteristics of rocks (using sight and/or touch)

¨        Make simple observations about different soil samples (moisture, color, rock content)

¨        Identify and describe various minerals

¨        Sort, classify, and describe rocks based on properties (e.g., hardness, luster, streak)

¨        Identify conditions under which rocks are formed (heat, pressure, weathering)

¨        Recognize that soil is made up of weathered rocks, and plant and animal components 

¨        Demonstrate that soil supports the growth of plants

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 6

 

At grades 3–5, students design and construct a variety of simple instruments that can be used to measure weather. They discuss how each design addresses the purpose for which it is intended. (Also connects with Technology/Engineering 2.1–2.4)

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Samantha creates a thermometer to measure temperature. She tests the accuracy of her design against commercially designed thermometers.

 

 

          Data chart showing Samantha’s ability to record temperature on her thermometer compared with a commercially designed thermometer

          Samantha’s chart of the temperatures she recorded

          Drawing and description of Samantha’s thermometer design

          Photograph of Samantha using her thermometer

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Patrick creates a chart listing temperatures from

0°F to 100°F, with space to record his observations next to each number. Patrick’s thermometer is divided into four sections for hot, warm, cool, and cold. He uses his chart to record the weather gathered from a variety of sources, including outdoor thermometer readings and a bookmarked Internet website of updates and forecasts.

 

 

          Data chart recording actual temperatures with Patrick’s designations (“hot,” “warm,” “cool,” “cold”)

          Patrick’s chart of recorded temperatures

          Photographs of Patrick determining the temperature using a variety of resources (e.g., thermometer, Internet, television weather report, newspaper)

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Ron participates in designing/building a thermometer with his peers. He works on his communication skills by requesting a turn to participate.

 

 

          Field data chart showing Ron’s ability to use his augmentative communication device to request a turn

          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart

          Videotape of Ron requesting a turn using his augmentative communication device

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

6–8  


  


 

 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Energy in the Earth System

 

Grade Level: 6–8

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

3

 

Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth’s system. 

 

¨        Explain heat transfer

¨        Identify and explain how solar energy impacts the earth (e.g., atmospheric

 

 

4

 

Explain the relationship among the energy provided by the sun, the global patterns of atmospheric movement, and the temperature differences among water, land, and atmosphere.

      patterns, temperature differences)

¨        Explain global atmospheric patterns and their effect on temperature

¨        Identify and describe the following:

·    tilt of earth, and resulting heat

 

 

11

 

Explain how the tilt of the earth and its revolution around the sun result in an uneven heating of the earth, which in turn causes the seasons.

   distribution and seasonal changes

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

   

     Less Complex                                           More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Energy in the Earth System

¨        Relate pictures of objects to words “hot”/”cold” (e.g., ice cream, steam, lit candle)

¨        Explain the differences in the seasons

¨         

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Observe and describe the temperatures of various objects (hot, warm, cool, cold)

¨        Record temperature changes of an object over time (e.g., a hot bowl of soup will eventually become cold)

¨        Relate seasonal changes to the tilt of the earth

¨        Describe the seasonal patterns that take place each year in New England

¨        Conduct experiments that demonstrate that liquids, solids, and gases form at different temperatures

¨        Demonstrate that differences in temperature tend to equalize over time and from one location to another

¨        Demonstrate that warm air rises

¨        Explain that the tilt of the earth determines how different locations experience the seasons

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

High School 




 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Energy in the Earth System

§         Materials and Energy Resources

       

Grade Level:  High School

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Energy in the Earth System

 

1.1

 

Identify Earth’s principal sources of internal and external energy, such as, radioactive decay, gravity, and solar energy.

 

¨        Identify earth’s sources of energy

¨        Describe electromagnetic radiation

¨        Explain how the transfer of energy impacts global atmospheric processes and observable events

¨        Recognize and describe how unequal heating of the earth influences global circulation patterns, weather, and climate, focusing particularly in Massachusetts

¨        Describe causes of seasonal variation

¨        Describe causes, conditions, and effects on humans of catastrophic weather conditions

¨        Describe ocean currents, their effects on the earth, and their relationship to global circulation

¨        Make observations and use data and computer models to study and document the earth’s systems and their interconnections

 

 

1.2

 

Describe the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and give examples of its impact on life and Earth’s systems.

 

 

1.3

 

Explain how the transfer of energy through radiation, conduction, and convection contributes to global atmospheric processes, such as storms, winds, and currents.

 

 

1.4

 

Provide examples of how the unequal heating of Earth and the Coriolis effect influence global circulation patterns and show how they impact on Massachusetts weather and climate, such as, global winds, convection cells, land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes.

 

 

1.5

 

Explain how the revolution of Earth around the Sun and the inclination of Earth on its axis cause Earth’s seasonal variations (equinoxes and solstices).

 

 

1.6

 

Describe the various conditions associated with frontal boundaries and cyclonic storms (such as, thunderstorms, winter storms [nor’easters], hurricanes, and tornadoes) and their impact on human affairs, including storm preparations.

 

 

1.7

 

Explain the dynamics of oceanic currents, including upwelling, deep-water currents, the Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream, and their relationship to global circulation within the marine environment and climate.

 

 

1.8

 

Read, interpret, and analyze a combination of ground-based observations, satellite data, and computer models to demonstrate Earth systems and their interconnections.

 

Materials and Energy Resources

 

2.1

 

Recognize, describe, and compare renewable energy resources (such as, solar, wind, water, and biomass) and nonrenewable energy resources (such as, fossil fuels and nuclear energy.)

 

¨        Recognize, describe, and compare renewable and non-renewable energy resources and the uses and impact of each on the environment

 

 

2.2

 

Describe the effects on the environment and on the carbon cycle of using both renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

 

 

    Less Complex                                              More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Energy in the Earth System

¨        Explain the terms “internal” and “external” in relation to Earth

¨        Recognize that energy can be transferred (hot water/spoon)

¨        Explain how the heating of the atmosphere varies between locations

¨        Define “axis” and how to measure inclination

¨        Recognize that water moves in and out (ebb and flow) at the ocean’s shore

¨        Describe how observations (looking and seeing) help us to learn about the earth’s system

¨        Observe and describe weather conditions (e.g., wind, temperature, precipitation, cloud formation, humidity)

¨        Identify the appropriate tool to be used for collection of specific data (e.g., thermometer/ temperature)

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Explain how energy can be transferred (radiation, conduction, convection)

¨        Recognize that air moves from warm to cold

¨        Identify the seasonal changes in New England and the characteristics of each

¨        Identify and describe currents, waves

¨        Identify weather patterns/ events, including storms, droughts, floods, precipitation rates

¨        Observe, identify, and record weather conditions

¨        Use simple scientific tools to make observations about the earth and its components (e.g., magnifying glass, telescope, microscope, thermometer, anemometer, compass, computer)

 

 

 

¨        Recognize that heat is transferred throughout the earth and the environment

¨        Identify types of global atmospheric processes

¨        Recognize that air movement impacts weather/climate

¨        Identify global patterns of heat movement on a map (warm fronts, jet stream)

¨        Demonstrate (with models) that the tilt of the earth affects the amount of direct sunlight on an area and causes seasonal variation

¨        Identify the range of seasonal changes within our country and around the world

¨        Identify and describe frontal boundaries on a weather map

¨        Explain the environmental impact and outcomes of weather patterns and events, including frontal boundaries, cyclonic storms, ocean currents, longshore currents

¨        Identify/use tools and equipment that scientists use to study the earth and its atmosphere

¨        Describe electromagnetic radiation

¨        Use observations (e.g., satellite, data, computer models) to demonstrate earth systems interconnections

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Materials and Energy Resources

¨        Recognize the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy resources

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Describe different sources of renewable energy and one way in which each has an impact on the environment

¨        Describe different sources of non-renewable energy and one way in which each has an impact on the environment

 

¨        Compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of different forms of renewable and non-renewable energy sources

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 


Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 1.6

 

In high school, students describe the various conditions associated with frontal boundaries and cyclonic storms and their impact on human affairs, including storm preparations.

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Young-Jin researches the impact of Nor’easters in Massachusetts throughout history. She conducts research, interviews experts, and develops a presentation with peers.

 

 

          Data chart showing Young-Jin’s ability to collect data on Nor’easters

          Transcript of Young-Jin’s phone interview with a local meteorologist

          Copy of Young-Jin’s written presentation

          Young-Jin’s historical timeline of “Nor’easters” in Massachusetts

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Grace chooses to research hurricanes and uses a graphic organizer to identify related weather features. For her final project, Grace develops a safety pamphlet outlining hurricane preparations.

 

 

          Data chart showing Grace’s ability to identify the varying stages of hurricanes

          Grace’s graphic organizer

          Pictures from the Internet on which Grace identifies the features of different hurricanes

          Grace’s pamphlet on hurricane preparation and safety

 

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Sally is working with a peer who is researching Nor’easters on the computer. Using her switch, Sally prints pictures/information when requested.

 

 

          Field data chart showing Sally’s ability to use her switch to print scientific information

          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart

          Printout of computer thumbnails on which the teacher has scribed Sally’s accuracy and independence in activating her switch to print pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

PreK–2  


 

 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth Processes and Cycles

§         Structure of the Earth

               

Grade Level:  PreK–2

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

 

No LS for PreK–2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

3–5
 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth Processes and Cycles

§         Structure of the Earth

               

Grade Level: 3–5

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

3

 

Identify the three categories of rocks (metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary) based on how they are formed, and explain the natural and physical processes that create these rocks.

 

¨    Explain and give examples of ways soil is formed and describe its properties

¨    Identify and describe the following:

·    water movement in different

 

 

4

 

Explain and give examples of the ways in which soil is formed (the weathering of rock by water and wind and from the decomposition of plant and animal remains).

   locations

·    effect of water cycle on climate

 

 

10

 

Describe how water on earth cycles in different forms and in different locations, including underground and in the atmosphere.

 

 

 

11

 

Give examples of how the cycling of water, both in and out of the atmosphere, has an effect on climate.

 

 

Structure of the Earth

 

12

 

Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

 

¨        Identify changes in the earth surface due to both slow and rapid processes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded in standards-based activities)

 

    Less Complex                                             More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ACCESS SKILLS

The student will:

ENTRY POINTS

The student will:

 

The student will:

 

The student will:

Earth Processes and Cycles

¨        Grasp, manipulate, and release rocks

¨        Tolerate touching different types of soil

¨        Tolerate touching water

¨        Respond to text being read aloud (i.e., remain alert, request more)

¨        Choose appropriate text to read or to have read aloud

¨        Orient to books/orient book right side up

¨        Turn pages in a book or magazine

¨        Activate an electronic device to access text, communicate with others, or participate in an instructional activity

¨        Turn attention toward another person

¨        Organize instructional materials

¨        Take turns appropriately during classroom discussion

¨        Respond to/initiate contacts with others

¨        Apply rules for appropriate classroom behavior

¨        Use appropriate social greetings

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Identify self and/or others

¨        Initiate or respond to request for joint attention

¨        Identify water (apart from other objects)

¨        Identify bodies of water on a map

¨        Identify ice and how it differs from water

¨        Make observations and describe the characteristics of water (e.g., wet, clear)

¨        Describe where water, ice, and water vapor are found on Earth and in the atmosphere (e.g., clouds, iceberg, reservoirs)

¨        Identify examples of stationary and moving water

¨        List types of rocks

¨        Identify conditions under which rocks are formed (heat, pressure, weathering)

¨        Provide understanding of how rocks weather and decompose (rocks break down into smaller parts, living things die and change)

¨        Conduct simple experiments to show that water can move (e.g., river flow) and that it moves in a downhill direction

¨        Identify the three states of water (frozen, liquid, gas) and where they are found on Earth and in the atmosphere

¨        Recognize that the states of water change as a result of temperature

¨        Relate states of water to weather (gas à cloud, liquid à rain, solid à snow/ice)

¨        Identify and describe aspects of the water cycle

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded in standards-based activities)

 

    Less Complex                                             More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ACCESS SKILLS

The student will:

ENTRY POINTS

The student will:

 

The student will:

 

The student will:

Struc-ture of the Earth

¨        Use the terms past/present/future as related to self

¨        Respond to text being read aloud (i.e., remain alert, request more)

¨        Initiate or respond to a request for joint attention

¨        Activate an electronic device to access text, communicate with others, or participate in an instructional activity

¨        Grasp, release, and manipulate objects

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Respond to/initiate contacts with others

¨        Turn attention toward another person

¨        Apply rule for appropriate classroom behavior

¨        Identify fast/slow processes that change the Earth’s surface features

¨        Define the terms past/present/future as they relate to Earth’s history

¨        Understand that there is an exterior surface of the earth

 

 

¨        Create models of the Earth’s exterior surface

¨        Identify and describe variations in surface features of the earth

 

 

 

¨        Identify changes that have occurred on the surface of the earth (past, present, future)

¨        Classify changes on earth’s surface as those that have taken a long time or those that have occurred quickly

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 


 

Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 3

 

At grades 3–5, students examine rocks collected from the schoolyard. They sort rocks into igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary based on their physical properties. They observe and describe the characteristics of minerals such as magnetite and hematite (two sources of iron).

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Hon collects rocks for observation and performs a series of tests on each rock for hardness, luster, and streak. He describes the physical properties and theorizes on the formation of each rock, sorting his collection accordingly.

 

 

          Data chart showing Hon’s ability to identify and sort rocks

          Photographs of Hon’s rock collection, labeled, and categorized

          Hon’s graphic representation of the characteristics of rocks in his collection

          Hon’s lab notebook describing each rock along with the information gathered on each rock sample

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Iris collects rocks for her science investigation. She sorts her collection by size, shape, and color. She lists the ways in which the rocks are similar and different.

 

 

          Data chart showing Iris’s ability to sort rocks

          Photographs of Iris’s rock collection, organized by size, shape, and color

          Iris’s list of differences and similarities among her rocks

          Videotape of Iris sorting her collection by category, with assistance as needed

          Iris’s list of categories (with definitions) used to describe her collection

 

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Jody participates in the activity by collecting rocks with peers. She helps select rocks for her peers and addresses fine/gross motor skills as she grasps each rock she selects and passes it to another person.

 

 

          Data chart showing Jody’s ability to grasp and pass rocks to someone else

          Videotape of Jody selecting, grasping, and passing rocks

          Scribed work sample documenting Jody’s ability to pass a rock to each peer during the activity

 

 

 

 


 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

Grades 6–8
 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth Processes and Cycles

§         Structure of the Earth

 

Grade Level:  6–8

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

6

 

Describe and give examples of ways in which the earth’s surface is built up and torn down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation, erosion, and weathering.

 

¨        Identify ways the earth’s surface is built up/torn down

 

 

Structure of the Earth

 

1

 

Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth’s common physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.

 

¨        Recognize and map the physical features of the earth

 

 

 

2

 

Describe the layers of the solid earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.

 

¨        Identify the layers that make up the earth

¨        Identify and describe crustal plate

 

 

5

 

Describe how the movement of the earth’s crustal plates causes both slow changes in the earth’s surface (e.g., formation of mountains and ocean basins) and rapid ones (e.g., volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).

      movement

¨        Identify changes in the earth’s interior due to both slow and rapid processes

¨        Explain and show evidence of earth’s

 

 

7

 

Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and surface features of glaciation supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic time.

      evolution over time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

   

    Less Complex                                            More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Earth Processes and Cycles

¨        Identify mountains

¨        Identify volcanoes

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Identify changes in the earth’s surface caused by weather

¨        Locate one or more volcano’s that have erupted

¨        Locate where one or more earthquakes have occurred

¨        Identify changes in the earth’s surface caused by weather or seismic activity

¨        Locate volcanic activity

¨        Identify where earthquakes have occurred and are likely to occur in the future

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Structure of the Earth

¨        Create models of different features of the earth’s surface (e.g., mountains, bodies of water, deserts)

¨        Match fossils with familiar organisms living today

¨        Show examples and suggest reasons why certain features of the earth formed the way they did (lakes, hill, mountains, canyons)

¨        Sequence the earth’s past/present/future

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Describe the features of the earth’s surface

¨        Create models that demonstrate surface features of the earth vary among different locations

¨        Create a model illustrating that the earth has both an interior and exterior

¨        Illustrate or describe how surface features of the earth depend on what is underneath the surface (rocks, depth of soil)

¨        Identify that earth’s crust is solid

¨        Identify/illustrate the interior of the earth

¨        Create a model to demonstrate that the earth’s surface can be built up (mountains) or torn down (canyons)

¨        Explain that fossils are formed over time from living things under great pressure

¨        Explain the relationship between what happens inside the earth and the earth’s topography

¨        Relate features on a map to actual features on the earth

¨        Identify properties of the earth’s interior

¨        Identify and describe events that can dramatically shift the earth’s surface (i.e., catastrophic weather or seismic occurrences)

¨        Identify and describe examples of erosion

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations


 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

High School
 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth Processes and Cycles

§         Structure of the Earth

 

Grade Level:  High School

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth Processes and Cycles

 

3.1

 

Explain how physical and chemical weathering leads to erosion and the formation of soils and sediments, and creates the various types of landscapes. Give examples that show the effects of physical and chemical weathering on the environment.

 

¨        Describe the following:

·    physical and chemical weathering

·    formation of varying landscapes

·    carbon cycle

·    nitrogen cycle

·    hydrologic cycle and movement of water through a watershed

·    rock cycle and formation and properties of different rocks

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

Describe the carbon cycle.                       

 

 

3.3

 

Describe the nitrogen cycle. 

 

 

3.4

 

Explain how water flows into and through a watershed. Explain the role of aquifers, wells, porosity, permeability, water table, and runoff.

 

 

3.5

 

Describe the processes of the hydrologic cycle including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater percolation, infiltration, and transpiration.

 

 

3.6

 

Describe the rock cycle, and the processes that are responsible for the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Compare the physical properties of these rock types and the physical properties of common rock-forming minerals.

 

Structure of the Earth

 

3.7

 

Describe the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time, such as, index fossils, radioactive dating, law of superposition, and crosscutting relationships.

 

¨        Describe the following:

·    dating methods used to measure geologic time

·    Richter scale and relative damage of an earthquake of a given magnitude

·    structure and process of the earth’s interior and the effects on the movement of plates on the earth’s surface

·    seismic activities and their effect on plate movements and alternating magnetic polarity

 

 

3.8

 

Trace the development of a lithospheric plate from its growth at a divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge) to its destruction at a convergent boundary (subduction zone). Recognize that alternating magnetic polarity is recorded in rock at mid-ocean ridges.

 

 

3.9

 

Explain the relationship between convection currents in Earth’s mantle and the motion of the lithospheric plates. 

 

 

3.10

 

Relate earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, mountain building and tectonic uplift to plate movements.

 

 

3.11

 

Explain how seismic data are used to reveal Earth’s interior structure and to locate earthquake epicenters.

 

 

3.12

 

Describe the Richter scale of earthquake magnitude and the relative damage that is incurred by earthquakes of a given magnitude.

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

   

    Less Complex                                            More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Earth Processes and Cycles

¨        Identify different types of soil

¨        Identify different landscapes

¨        Explain the buildup of land surface or the diminishing of land surface

¨        Identify the states of water and the conditions under which each occurs

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Identify the movement patterns of water on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere

¨        Compare different types of rocks

 

 

 

¨        Classify natural processes as generating (adding to) or breaking down (taking away) structures of the earth’s surface

¨        Describe how energy interacts in the water cycle

¨        Identify and describe where energy is stored in the water cycle (e.g., clouds, reservoirs, ice caps)

¨        Explain the causes and effects of the rock cycle

¨        Describe the carbon cycle

¨        Describe the nitrogen cycle

¨        Describe watersheds and how they work

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Structure of the Earth

¨        Identify properties of rocks

¨        Identify seismic, extreme weather, and other catastrophic earth events

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

¨        Name the forces that result in changes to the earth’s surface

¨        Recognize that lithospheric plates exist and move on the surface of the earth

¨        Identify seismic, extreme weather, and other catastrophic earth events and describe the causes of each

¨        Recognize that fossils are evidence of changes in the earth over time

¨        Identify changes that occur in the interior of the earth (past, present, future)

¨        Relate collision of lithospheric plates (cause) to surface changes (effect)

¨        Explain what the Richter scale is and for what it is used

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 3.5

 

In high school, students compare and contrast processes within the hydrologic cycle (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, ground percolation, infiltration) by performing a series of experiments in the classroom and outdoors.

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

After her teacher reviews components of the hydrologic cycle, Dianna and her lab partners perform experiments in which they melt ice, boil water, and measure condensation, runoff, and absorption.

 

 

          Data chart showing Dianna’s ability to demonstrate knowledge of the hydrologic cycle through tests, quizzes, and other work

          Dianna’s lab notebook documenting each experiment, describing each process, and explaining the individual and cumulative cost/benefit of each process

          Videotape of Dianna and her lab group performing the experiments

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Katrina participates in the experiments by identifying different states of matter (gas, liquid, solid). She offers simple, 1–2 word descriptions of each state, which are transcribed by a peer.

 

 

          Data chart showing Katrina’s ability to demonstrate knowledge regarding states of matter

          Videotape of Katrina performing each experiment

          List dictated by Katrina describing the different states of matter

          Copy of Katrina’s lab notes

 

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Maggie works with Dianna’s group to perform each experiment. She hands Dianna materials and tools that she needs to perform the experiment.

 

 

          Field data chart showing Maggie’s ability to respond to a request

          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart

          Videotape of Maggie waiting her turn and responding to one-step directions from peers (e.g., “Hand X to me.”)

          Scribed work sample of the tools Maggie must give to peer, with tally of Maggie’s ability to do so accurately and independently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

PreK–2


  


 

 

 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth in the Solar System

               

Grade Level:  PreK–2

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

5

 

Identify some events around us that have repeating patterns, including the seasons of the year, day and night.

 

¨        Identify repeating patterns of the earth, e.g., seasons, day/night

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded in standards-based activities)

 

    Less Complex                                             More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 


ACCESS SKILLS

 

ENTRY POINTS

 

 

 

The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Earth in the Solar System

¨        Identify patterns and routines in day and night activities

¨        Take turns appropriately during classroom discussion

¨        Respond to text being read aloud (i.e., remain alert, request more)

¨        Organize instructional materials

¨        Initiate or respond to a request for joint attention

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Respond to/initiate contacts with others

¨        Turn attention toward another person

¨        Apply rule for appropriate classroom behavior

¨        Identify and observe changes in surroundings

¨        Identify day and night

¨        Identify each of the seasons

 

 

 

 

 

 

¨        Match/sort the seasons of the year with pictorial images

¨        Describe/explain that the seasons have special characteristics (e.g., temperature, precipitation, hours of daylight)

¨        Record length of daylight over a school year

¨        Identify and describe the characteristics of each season

¨        Explain day and night in relationship to the apparent movement of the sun

¨        Describe what you see in the sky during the day/at night

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

3–5
 

 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth in the Solar System

 

               

Grade Level: 3–5

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

13

 

Recognize that the earth is part of a system called the “solar system” that includes the sun (a star), planets, and many moons.  The earth is the third planet from the sun in our solar system.

 

¨        Identify and describe the following:

·    the solar system and its basic components

·    the movement of the earth

·    the monthly, visible changes in the moon’s appearance

 

 

14

 

Recognize that the earth revolves around (orbits) the sun in a year’s time and that the earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours.  Make connections between the rotation of the earth and day/night, and the apparent movement of the sun, moon, and stars across the sky.

 

 

15

 

Describe the changes that occur in the observable shape of the moon over the course of a month.

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

 

    Less Complex                                              More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Earth in the Solar System

¨        Identify the earth, sun, and moon

¨        Describe day, night, and year

¨        Recognize the apparent movement of the sun during the course of the day

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

 

¨        Identify the planets

¨        Identify characteristics of the sun, moon, and earth

¨        Identify when an object is circling/revolving around another object

¨        Document changes that occur in the lengths of night and day at different points in the year

¨        Document changes in the moon’s appearance from day to day

 

¨        Identify characteristics of the planets

¨        Build models to demonstrate that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun

¨        Record the phases of the moon (monthly pattern)

¨        Relate night and day to relative positions of earth to the sun

¨        Describe the visual appearance of the moon over a one month period

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

6–8

 

 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Earth in the Solar System

§         Origin and Evolution of Earth

               

Grade Level: 6–8

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

8

 

Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the earth toward the center of the earth.  Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets, stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.

 

¨        Identify and describe the following:

·    the force of gravity

·    the effects of the earth’s gravitational pull

·    the motion of objects in the solar system

·    moon phases

·    eclipses

·    tides

·    similarities/differences among objects in the solar system

 

 

 

 

9

 

Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides.  Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.

 

 

10

 

Compare and contrast properties and conditions of objects in the solar system (i.e., sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e., gravitational force, distance from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).

 

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

 

12

 

Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

 

¨        Identify and describe the following:

·    components of the universe (galaxies/stars)

·    differences among galaxies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

   

    Less Complex                                            More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 

 


ACCESS SKILLS

The student will:

 

ENTRY POINTS

The student will:

 

 

The student will:

 

 

The student will:

Earth in the Solar System

Access skills for this topic can be found under the Grade Level: PreK–2 Learning Standards

¨        Create shadows by blocking light

¨        Conduct simple experiments involving gravity (e.g., falling objects)

¨        Conduct simple experiments on movement of water along a surface

¨        Recognize that the sun provides heat and light

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

 

¨        Record changes in tidal zones

¨        Explain and demonstrate that the locations of light source and object affect the position/size of a shadow

¨        Explain temperature changes that occur between direct and indirect light

¨        Identify characteristics of stars

 

 

¨        Identify gravity as the force that makes objects fall toward the earth

¨        Describe how a lunar eclipse blocks moonlight and a solar eclipse blocks sunlight

¨        Record daily times of high and low tides

¨        Describe how the tides are controlled by the moon

¨        Describe how the movement of the earth causes changes in the way objects in the sky look (e.g., moon phases)

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

¨        Match pictures of the moon, planets, and stars

¨        Identify same and different

¨        Activate an electronic device to access text, communicate with others, or participate in an instructional activity

¨        Grasp, manipulate, and release objects

¨        Respond to/initiate contacts with others

¨        Follow simple directions

¨        Initiate or respond to request for joint attention

¨        Identify objects in the solar system

¨        Identify stars as large distinct objects very far away

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Identify similarities among objects in the sky

¨        Identify earth, sun, moon, planets, and stars as parts of our galaxy

¨        Identify differences among objects in the sky

 

Continue to address skills and concepts in this strand that approach grade-level expectations

 

 

 

 


Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 8

 

At grades 6–8, students observe the speed at which objects of various mass fall from the same height. Using a chronometer to accurately measure time, they plot the data as “mass versus time.”

 

How all students can participate in this activity

Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written for this grade level

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Sonia and her lab group select 10 objects of different masses to test. They test the force of gravity on these objects by dropping them from their second-story classroom. For each object, they record the time it takes to fall to the ground and plot mass vs. time on a graph to assess their findings.

 

 

          Data chart showing Sonia’s ability to determine force of gravity on objects

          Videotape of Sonia’s participation in this experiment with her lab partners

          Hypothesis formulated by Sonia and her group

          Lab report written by Sonia using scientific procedure

          Graph of mass vs. time for the objects used in Sonia’s lab group’s experiment

 

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower levels of complexity (Entry Points)

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Milos uses a spring balance to weigh each object chosen by his lab group. After participating in the experiment with his peers, Milos records the data on a spreadsheet and generates a graph of the results.

 

 

          Data chart showing Milos’s ability to weigh objects

          Milos’s chart recording the actual weight of each object

          Videotape of Milos using the spring balance to weigh selected objects

          Milos’s self-generated graph of the weight of each object

 

Addressing Access Skills embedded in academic instruction

Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio Products

 

Lester select the objects as requested for the lab experiment.  He follows directions to drop and test each object with his lab group.

 

 

          Field data chart showing Lester’s ability to follow directions within 5 seconds of a request

          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart

          Videotape of Lester following directions within 5 seconds after a request has been made

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folded Corner: Science and Technology/ Engineering

Strand 1
Earth and Space Science

High School

  


 

 

 


CONTENT   Science and Technology/Engineering

STRAND   Earth and Space Science

Learning Standards for:

§         Origin and Evolution of the Universe

§         Earth in the Solar System

 

Grade Level:  High School

 

Topic

        Learning Standards as written

Essence of the Standard(s)

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

4.2

 

Describe the influence of gravity and inertia on the rotation and revolution of orbiting bodies. Explain the sun-Earth-moon relationships, such as, day, year, solar/lunar eclipses and tides.

 

¨        Describe the following:

·    influence of gravity and inertia on rotation and revolution

·    relationships among Earth, Sun, and Moon

 

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

 

4.1

 

Explain the Big Bang Theory and discuss the evidence that supports it, such as, background radiation, and relativistic Doppler effect ~ “red shift.”

 

¨        Describe the following:

·    Big Bang Theory

·    formation of the solar system

 

 

 

4.3

 

Explain how the sun, Earth, and solar system formed from a nebula of dust and gas in a spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy about 4.6 billion years ago.

 

Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s)

 

    Less Complex                                             More Complex

 

straight line with arrows 

 

 


The student will:

The student will:

The student will:

Earth in the Solar System

¨        Describe the effects of gravity

¨        Recognize that the earth’s rotation results in the appearance of movement of moon, sun, and other stars

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Describe one or more observable effects of the sun and/or moon on the earth

¨        Describe rotation and revolution and the effect produced by each

¨        Describe different effects of the sun and moon on the earth, and identify the causes of each

¨        Describe gravity and its effect on orbiting bodies

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

Origin and Evolution of the Earth

¨        Describe one aspect of how the Earth was formed

¨        Identify and describe one or more parts of the solar system

¨        Identify basic facts about galaxies

 

Continue to address earlier standards in this topic at a level that challenges the student

¨        Describe one or more aspects of how the Earth was formed

¨        Describe the formation of the solar system

¨        Describe the Milky Way Galaxy